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The Politics of Science Advice: Institutional Design for Quality Assurance – By Justus Lentsch and Peter Weingart. Raffael Himmelsbach.
Table of contents
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- SWP – Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik – Source description – gemuvukufoby.tk
- Daniel Sarewitz
Destructive creation and the new world disorder Harris, P. Governing our future selves Sarewitz, D. Taylor and Francis , p. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement Sarewitz, D.
CRC Press , p. Biomedical Enhancement. Sometimes science must give way to religion Sarewitz, D. Ancient History. The sustainability solutions agenda. Practice Psychology. Does climate change knowledge really matter? Looking for quality in all the wrong places, or: The technological origins of quality in scientific policy advice Sarewitz, D.
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Cambridge University Press , p. Science agencies must bite innovation bullet Sarewitz, D.
- The case for policy-relevant conservation science.
- Quest for a Killer (Rose McQuinn, Book 6)?
- Account Options;
- Planning At The Crossroads.
- Content Evaluation of Textual CD-ROM and Web Databases (Database Searching Series).
- Experts and Politics in the German Nuclear Waste Governance?
- Hooch: Simplified Brewing, Winemaking, and Infusing at Home!
Military Science. United States Department of Defense. The accelerating techno-human future Allenby, B. The dubious benefits of broader impact Sarewitz, D. Security Measures. The voice of science: Let's agree to disagree Sarewitz, D. Dissent and Disputes. Climate Change. A new strategy for energy innovation Alic, J.
Green Chemistry Technology. Conservation of Energy Resources. Greenhouse Effect. Economic Models. Better all the time Sarewitz, D. Energy-Generating Resources. Double trouble?
Economic Recession. Government Financing. Entertaining science Sarewitz, D. Economic Development. Normal science and limits on knowledge: What we seek to know, what we choose not to know, what we don't bother knowing Sarewitz, D.
Politicize me Sarewitz, D. The role of technology assessment in systemic innovation policy Smits, R.
- The Politics of Scientific Advice.
- War Narratives and the American National Will in War!
- Universal Laws: 18 Powerful Laws & The Secret Behind Manifesting Your Desires (Finding Balance).
Edward Elgar Publishing , p. Here, it is important to make a distinction between overt political manipulation of evidence and the legitimate processes of governing in a democracy, in which it is to be expected that scientific evidence will be among the many considerations that typically need to be taken into account. In line with democratic decision making, therefore, the use of science by policy makers in all areas of regulatory policy is mediated through interaction with other demands.
Factors that interact with the policy-making process, including competing interests, values, and path dependency an attachment to historical ways of working which could constrain the use of new ideas adapted from Davies If one accepts that the policy process is affected by the variety of variables highlighted in Fig. This will not be achieved by making the evidence better or by creating narratives without consideration of political context. Instead, scientists should consider the competing goals of policy makers and incorporate knowledge of salient contexts as the overriding driver of van Bommel and van der Zouwen's 3-point plan.
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How an issue is framed, therefore, becomes crucial to deciding how policy makers interpret ideas; Riker argues that many of the most significant shifts in political life are caused by reframing the issues at stake. He argues that radical policy change can occur where policies, problems, and politics join together. In other words, if knowledge fits within pre-conceived pet ideas whilst solving a salient problem and within a context of receptive politics, evidence has the potential to be influential.
The RSPB's campaign initially lacked policy relevance because they framed the narrative in terms of animal welfare, and this failed to influence decision makers. The RSPB then argued their case for a ban on the basis of protecting human health because trading in wild birds could spread avian flu farther, a story that suddenly had a hook with a social, political, and even economic dimension.
This re-telling quickly led to an EU ban. This example shows that conservation scientists can reframe the meaning of their evidence so that it speaks more directly to a salient political context. Identifying hooks outside of nature conservation is vital to increase the saliency of scientific advice, and chances to do this could be missed by focusing on producing more evidence.
Seizing opportunities to argue differently can be productive, further illustrated by Balmford's assessment of water management in South Africa. In this case, conservation biologists discovered the substantial threat invasive plant species e. After struggling to influence policy initially, conservation scientists experienced a substantial research impact by persuading the government to set into motion a widespread non-native removal plan.
Balmford argues that scientific evidence became influential because it was used to approach the problem of non-native plant species from a range of angles. In presenting knowledge to the government, it was clearly argued that human well-being and an ability to tackle social inequality were inextricably linked to ecosystem health.
In , Working for Water employed around 25, people in projects to eradicate non-native species across South Africa, providing jobs for some of the poorest people in the country whilst achieving conservation benefits. This is clearly illustrated, for example, by polls conducted for the European Union elections in which climate change and the environment fell far behind issues relating to the economy, immigration, and crime, in terms of electoral importance EU Commission Protecting nature, therefore, is rarely likely to be the priority of most policy makers, and scientists would, therefore, benefit from presenting evidence in such a way as ensures conservation contributes to other issues.
It is true that there is relatively little well-developed theory of policy advice for scientists to follow Owens However, drawing inspiration from the astute reframing of the RSPB wild bird campaign and Working for Water discussed previously, it is possible to recognize the value of discursively narrating policy-relevant knowledge wherever possible.
I argue that 2 ideas could be embraced that increase the political salience of conservation evidence and more importantly that these points can be easily and efficiently employed by scientists. It is useful to offer lessons about how conservation scientists can harness the skills required for politically astute reframing of evidence.
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I attempt specifically to make my advice accessible to all conservation scientists, whether directly involved in policy discussions or not. Being a conservation scientist does not mean one is not capable of keeping up with changes in political context Young et al. In the case of the Conservative party, the major part of the U.
Coalition Government which came to power in , it was widely reported that localist forms of governance were supported; thus, conservationists might have seized upon this as a framework with which to argue for nature. In the vision of Takacs , scientists could begin to take chances to protect nature by constructing stories not akin to traditional arguments.
This is perhaps an area in which conservation scientists miss opportunities although the idea of ecosystem services, for example, has been seized upon ; they sometimes rely on the strength of evidence alone and the persuasiveness of protecting nature for nature's sake, a value not shared by everyone. Doing so may, of course, require more work to identify and measure ecosystem services vital for social well-being.
However, in addressing concerns about adopting a policy-relevant approach, there are risks. Furthermore, the RSPB achieved short-term success in terms of affecting a ban on trade of wild birds and highlighted that animal welfare is less salient than other framings, potentially undermining ethical arguments to protect nature. Instead, policy-relevant evidence can be deployed alongside arguments to protect nature for its own sake, adding to the toolbox available to conservation scientists who wish to influence policy. Following on from the premise of reframing evidence, it is further important to help conservation biologists gain useful skills to identify pressing political issues more often, and it is vital to identify techniques that are relatively easy to learn.
This latter point is important because Sutherland et al. However, an analysis of advice offered by Young et al. These authors suggest a number of different approaches, such as organizing workshops attended by scientists and policy makers to allow joint framing, advocating better links with government science advisers, and promoting more interdisciplinary research.
Moving on from these widely documented ideas, Young et al. A short period of following a policy maker and witnessing the daily demands of her or his work would be an enlightening experience for many scientists, particularly those in training, and could facilitate a greater awareness of the reception of scientific evidence once it is deployed in policy debates. In regards to the South African eradication of non-native species, one can see the value of such skills.
Gaining a first-hand appreciation of relevant issues by understanding the mechanics of the work of policy maker is necessary to see conservation issues through their eyes. Cross-reviewing might also lead to increased sharing of knowledge between, for example, policy analysts and conservation scientists. It is encouraging to witness successful practices already underway in universities that are training the next generation of conservationists. Conservation postgraduate students in one group at the University of British Columbia, for example, are required to produce policy briefs for nearly every piece of research produced, whether it is a research paper, a popular science article, or blog.
SWP – Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik – Source description – gemuvukufoby.tk
This involves training in how to write effective briefs in words or so and practice in honing this technique over time to consolidate the importance of always seeing how their work fits into wider policy debates an important and necessary philosophy even if a piece of work is not directly meant for policy makers. Drawing upon Gieryn's seminal research on boundary work, Cash et al.
However, later scholars of science and technology studies acknowledged that boundaries can be fluid as did Gieryn , but also found that they are open to a constructive interpretation Jasanoff ; Bijker et al. In the context of increasing the impact of conservation research, Young et al. Instead, they focus on how scientists might link boundaries to bridge the communication gap between science and policy.
These objects can take numerous forms such as documents, concepts, narratives, or models which are understandable and acceptable to both scientists and policy makers. For example, Turnhout et al. However, it is vital for scientists to understand that they like policy makers have agency to define a boundary's location so that its very position can be strategically changed.
This constructive interpretation of boundary work moves beyond defending the discipline of science from interference by nonscientific sources to further identifying that better communication alone is sometimes inadequate to facilitate a positive research impact. Although not widely discussed in the conservation literature, Swart and van Andel describe how ecologists engaged in constructive boundary work in controversies surrounding cockle fishing in the Dutch Wadden Sea.
Therefore, the very process of producing policy-relevant science can be a form of constructive boundary work, which seeks to extend the reach of scientific knowledge in order for science to be influential in the political realm. Of course, engaging in boundary work might initially be uncomfortable for scientists Jasanoff , who consider that the credibility of the scientific enterprise is undermined by any link with the policy-making process Breining Yet, in conservation science, engagement with the policy process is desirable because conservation attempts to achieve an objective that is extrinsic to science itself, notably the protection of nature in practice.
Furthermore, Cook et al. Conservation biology might, therefore, usefully measure the suitability of a research product not by scientific quality alone, but also by its applicability to the needs of policy makers de Wit In the first instance, presenting information in the form of an understandable story is useful to engage nonexperts, but policy relevance is vital to hold their attention and make an impact.
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